|Cleopatra VII and her son Caesarion at the Temple of Dendera|
|Augustus as pharaoh. Also: Octavian named pharaoh in cartouche.|
|Denarius depicting Julius Caesar as Pontifex Maximus|
resurrection of Antinous - along with the founding of a new cult in his name - marks a pivotal stage in Chrestian theology which later inspired the writing of the first gospel. Put another way, the original gospel (Q perhaps) must be post-Hadrian, though in conception they are not yet Christian. This grecophile emperor (who retained total control over access to the Library) was, in my opinion, Chrestian.
|Statue of Hadrian as Pontifex Maximus - Musei Capitolini|
Charlemagne continued his father's policy towards the papacy and became its protector, removing the Lombards from power in northern Italy, and leading an incursion into Muslim Spain. He also campaigned against the peoples to his east, Christianizing them upon penalty of death, at times leading to events such as the Massacre of Verden. Charlemagne reached the height of his power in 800 when he was crowned "emperor" by Pope Leo III on Christmas Day at Old St. Peter's Basilica.
Called the "Father of Europe" (pater Europae), Charlemagne united most of Western Europe for the first time since the Roman Empire.
8. If any one of the race of the Saxons hereafter concealed among them shall have wished to hide himself unbaptized, and shall have scorned to come to baptism and shall have wished to remain a pagan, let him be punished by death. (Capitulatio de partibus Saxoniae)The Roman Empire became Christendom, still headed by the Pontifex Maximus and extending its faith - power and influence - by force. This strategy continued through the Middle Ages with, for example, the Northern Crusades (which include the Wendish Crusade, Livonian Crusade, Prussian Crusade and four Swedish Crusades).
|Seal of the Livonian Brothers of the Sword, medieval Livonia|
The gospels, Pauline epistles and Acts-Luke are first Greek, though colonial rather than of Greece proper; they emerge from Greek culture, what had been Seleucia and Ptolemaic Egypt. This is the empire founded by Alexander II of Macedon and it stretched from the Mediterranean and Africa to India. The literary roots of the New Testament lie in Greek culture, syncretised with numerous gods, theologies and religious customs of this Greek and Greco-Roman world. Some syncretisms are obvious and others less so.
|Château de Floure, a hotel in France which was once a Roman villa, then monastery. Numerous villas became early monasteries, usually owned and managed by local royalty. Unpaid slaves became unpaid monks working in powerful, economic centres.|
"Who then is the faithful and wise slave, whom his master has put in charge of his household, to give the other slaves their allowance of food at the proper time? Blessed is that slave whom his master will find at work when he arrives." -- Matthew 24:45-46.Whatever were the intentions of Chrestian authors, once the project became imperial, the focus was on the relationship between lord and servant, master and slave, in a practical, secular manner appropriate to its period, though dressed up/rationalised as theology. We see it today in the way 'the great and the good' lord it over the masses/electorate/wage slaves.
"Let all who are under the yoke of slavery regard their masters as worthy of all honor, so that the name of God and the teaching may not be blasphemed. Those who have believing masters must not be disrespectful to them on the ground that they are members of the church; rather they must serve them all the more, since those who benefit by their service are believers and beloved. Teach and urge these duties. Whoever teaches otherwise and does not agree with the sound words of our Lord Jesus Christ and the teaching that is in accordance with godliness, is conceited, understanding nothing, and has a morbid craving for controversy and for disputes about words. From these come envy, dissension, slander, base suspicions, and wrangling among those who are depraved in mind and bereft of the truth, imagining that godliness is a means of gain." -- 1 Timothy 6:1-5.
"Slaves, obey your earthly masters with fear and trembling, in singleness of heart, as you obey Christ; not only while being watched, and in order to please them, but as slaves of Christ, doing the will of God from the heart." -- Ephesians 6:5-6.
"Submit yourselves for the Lord’s sake to every authority instituted among men." -- 1 Peter 2:13
"Slaves, accept the authority of your masters with all deference, not only those who are kind and gentle but also those who are harsh. For it is a credit to you if, being aware of God, you endure pain while suffering unjustly. If you endure when you are beaten for doing wrong, what credit is that? But if you endure when you do right and suffer for it, you have God's approval." -- 1 Peter 2:18-29.
"Slavery among men is natural, for some are naturally slaves according to the Philosopher (Polit. i, 2). Now 'slavery belongs to the right of nations,' as Isidore states (Etym. v, 4). Therefore the right of nations is a natural right." -- Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica, "On Justice"
"The prime cause ... of slavery is sin, which brings man under the dominion of his fellow -- that which does not happen save by the judgment of God, with whom is no unrighteousness, and who knows how to award fit punishments to every variety of offence." -- St. Augustine of Hippo, City of God, Book XIX, Chapter. 15.
"Masters contribute greater benefits to their servants than servants to their masters. For the former furnish the money to purchase for them sufficient food and clothing, and bestow much care upon them in other respects, so that the masters pay them the larger service ... they suffer much toil and trouble for your repose, ought they not in return to receive much honor from you, their servants?" -- St. John Chrysostom, "Homily 16 on 1 Timothy"
"Slavery itself, considered as such in its essential nature, is not at all contrary to the natural and divine law, and there can be several just titles of slavery and these are referred to by approved theologians and commentators of the sacred canons. ... It is not contrary to the natural and divine law for a slave to be sold, bought, exchanged or given. The purchaser should carefully examine whether the slave who is put up for sale has been justly or unjustly deprived of his liberty, and that the vendor should do nothing which might endanger the life, virtue, or Catholic faith of the slave." -- Instruction 20, The Holy Office (Sacred Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith), June 20, 1866.
Chrestianity began as a means to combat messianic Judaism in Judea and neighbouring states such as Syria and Egypt, and so keep power within the ruling, Roman-backed elites of the provinces. However, as ever-practical Rome cared less about personalities and religions than they did about loyalty to Rome, Chrestians had to remain covert and when needed, assassinate emperors they regarded as too tolerant of their enemies. In the first century, it was equally dangerous to be either a messianic Jew, or an emperor who opposed Chrestian policy.
|If you think I'm wrong, why have no bankers have been convicted for the series of massive scandals?|